Few substances preserve items quite like ice. The cold temperatures can prevent things from degrading and can preserve them nearly unaltered for decades, centuries, or even millennia. Because of this, scientists have made some impressive discoveries over the years, finding treasures preserved in their original form. These discoveries have taught us important lessons about our past and given a portal to view the world as it once was. What types of discoveries have scientists made?
In some cases, it might get cold enough to freeze architecture. In some places, this happens more often than others. Michigan is known for its cold temperatures and this lighthouse froze completely. Hopefully, this structure is unharmed.
Wooly mammoths have long mystified everyone from schoolchildren to professional scientists. In this situation, an individual discovered the brains of a mammoth along the coast of the Laptev Sea. This is one of only a few examples of a mammoth being found with its brain intact. In this case, the mammoth likely fell to its death thousands of years ago.
While sometimes scientists discover ancient animals frozen in ice, this isn’t always the case. In this example, scientists discovered a modern fox frozen solidly in ice. This fox likely took a swim in the frozen conditions of the Arctic. Then, it was frozen solid and discovered in this form. Modern animals are not immune to being frozen in ice.
Continuing with the theme of animals frozen in ice, not everything that is frozen dies. In this picture, an alligator is seen frozen in ice. Shockingly, it survived. Some animals are able to survive the cold conditions, provided that they can still breathe.
In addition to animals, scientists are able to find other relics trapped in ice. While not exactly a relic, scientists did discover this military plane that had crashed decades ago. It was eventually rediscovered not far from the crash site. It had crashed into a nearby glacier and was frozen solid.
Some of what people might discover in ice can be downright bizarre. Seen in this photo is a fish that is trying to eat another fish. Because it was frozen in the middle of this act, the temperature of the water must have dropped quickly.
Seen in this photo is a dinosaur that was evidently mummified by the ice. The ability of ice to preserve animals that had frozen millions of years ago provides scientists with a unique learning opportunity. Scientists are able to study the structure of the animal to figure out how it would’ve survived millions of years in the past.
In this photo, scientists found birds that were diving into the water, looking for pray. Unfortunately, during their dive, the water temperature dropped. This trapped the birds in the ice until they were rediscovered.
Dogs have been around for millennia as well. In this picture, scientists are examining a puppy that they found frozen in ice. This specimen is well-preserved and gives scientists an opportunity to study dogs that were alive during the ice age. This puppy was found in Siberia and helps to trace the evolutionary tree of canines.
Explorers found this copper arrowhead preserved, frozen in ice. This tells scientists that ancient cultures understood how to use metallurgy to make arrowheads. This tip even had barbs and resembles that fishhooks that people use today. This technology has likely advanced for its time.
In some cases, scientists find artifacts that can help them map the movements of ancient cultures. Seen here, explorers have identified various items that were used by Vikings in Norway. This gear was thousands of years old and helps to cement the reputation of ancient Vikings as explorers.
Sometimes, scientists can make discoveries that are downright scary. In this image, the ice appears to be soaked in blood. How does this happen to something that is frozen? In actuality, the ice is just filled with iron. It is the same substance that gives Mars its color.
Among other fascinating discoveries, scientists can actually find entire forests that are frozen in water. As glaciers advance, they pick up other items that are frozen in ice. This is called a moraine. These items form a cushion that protects other items, such as forests, from being crushed by the glacier. This has preserved the forest as the glacier continues to move.
On a somber note, scientists can also discover bodies in the ice. These are mountains from Chile where ancient cultures sometimes performed human sacrifices. Some of these sacrifices are found preserved in the ice.
Even though this seems foreign to us today, human sacrifice was a way that ancient cultures would try to please their gods. In some cases, cultures even sacrificed children. These discoveries give scientists a window into ancient cultures.
For those who would like to know exactly how ice preserves its items, the extreme cold stops the decomposition process. Bacteria are responsible for breaking down various substances over time. If the items are frozen solid, bacteria do not have access to oxygen. Therefore, they cannot decompose whatever is in the ice.
In this photo, many of the battlefield items and trenches are seen preserved from World War I. Many of these battles were fought high up in the Alps, where the temperatures can plummet. This harmed the soldiers fighting in these battles and also preserved much of their equipment for posterity.
In addition to discovering the sacrifices of ancient cultures, scientists have also found modern humans frozen in ice. Those who tumble to their deaths or are otherwise frozen in ice can be preserved for hundreds of years before discovery.
Scientists have also found sabertooth tigers, which have also been called cave lions. One of these discoveries was made in Siberia. In this situation, scientists believe that they had found a cub. Even the fur of this animal had been preserved by the ice, allowing scientists to learn more about this ancient animal.
Seen here in this picture, scientists have also found darts of the ancient Atlatl people. These darts were placed on the end of a wooden pole and functioned as an ancient spear. The Atlatl people customized these spears so that they could be thrown farther and more accurately.
Not everything that has been frozen in ice can be seen with the naked eye. Scientists have also discovered ancient bacteria frozen in the ice. These bacteria are the ancestors of current bacteria, allowing scientists to trace the evolutionary process between then and now.
These bacteria aren’t always dead and scientists need to be careful. Even though we have modern defenses and medications to defend against the bacteria we see on a daily basis, we have no such protection against these ancient bacteria. Therefore, scientists need to take extra precautions.
The Woolly Mammoth has become an iconic member of the ‘trapped in ice’ family. Here we see a picture of a mammoth that was discovered with its brain intact! Scientists have dated this specimen to roughly 39,000 years old. Scientists estimate that this mammoth was roughly six years old when it died. The leading theory for this ‘little’ mammoth is that the creature fell into the water and summarily froze to death.
Meet Otzi, the ‘Long Ago Man’. Discovered in ice by scientists, Otzi presents one of the most fascinating cases of life preserved by ice. Said to be nearly 5,300 years old, Otzi was discovered with a robe made from ninety-five different pelts. Otzi also had fish scales in his pockets, a giant fur coat, and a walking stick. While Otzi was definitely prepared for the weather, he ultimately died by falling from his glacier.
Humans have always left signs of life where they once lived. Here, we see a collection of human spears that were found in Yellowstone. These spears were collected in a portion fo Yellowstone that had purportedly never housed human life. The spears were judged to be roughly 10,000 years old. These are ancient for human standards.
We imagine that there are few things more terrifying in life than being charged down by a rhino covered in fur. This concept art represents the remains of a woolly rhino that was discovered in Sakha, Russia. The woolly rhino may sound like a creature from a storybook, but they were actually real. These rhinos allegedly died out around 10,000 years ago
Otherwise, known as cave lions, sabretooth tigers were once the apex predators of the land. These giant cats roamed throughout Russia and that is exactly where scientists found an amazingly preserved specimen. This sabretooth tiger was located in Yakutia, Siberia. The body was so well-preserved that the giant cat was still covered in fur. Sabretooth tigers were purported to have died out due to human hunting and global warming.
Scientists have discovered the remnants of our human ancestors in just about every corner of the globe. As it turns out, we’re a rather crafty species. In fact, we’re so crafty that our tools can be found in the waste of long-dead animals. Here, we see a manmade dart shaft that was discovered in the fossilized poop of a giant caribou.
While not specifically a creature, the droppings of an animal are almost as good. Caribou droppings have been found frozen in ice all over the northern regions of their inhabitance. Scientists love discovering poo, and we aren’t joking! Finding the ancient droppings of a dead animal can serve as a wonderful point of research for discovering their traits, diet, and general wellbeing.
Alright, so we were pretty liberal with our title. But still, finding ancient structures frozen in time is just as amazing as finding a frozen creature. Scientists have found rare wood frozen in ice. What makes this kind of discovery special is that the wood is not natural to the area, meaning it was hauled there by humans. Finding human remains in ice can help to paint a picture of how our ancestors behaved.
If you dig through ice long enough, you’ll find hints at human life. This basket was discovered in Alaska and scientists were quick to establish a timeframe for its creation. According to scientific research, this Alaskan birch basket was created more than 600 years ago! Imagine what this basket was around to see. The fact that the ice preserved it for so long is truly amazing.
Gopher’s may be adorable little creatures, but they were also a great snack for early man. Scientists managed to find a gopher capturing stick frozen in the ice. This stick had a looping snare and a curved body that would help to snare the little creatures when they crossed the threshold. The trap was found to be over 1,800 years old.
Finding weapons frozen in ice makes perfect sense. Back then, you had to be ready to kill in order to protect yourself. Scientists have found curved willow bows frozen in ice on numerous occasions. One of the oldest recovered bows was said to be nearly 340 years old. This discovery was made by the archeologist Tom Andrews.
One of the most tantalizing prospects of finding a frozen creature preserved in ice is what it will reveal. Scientists have discovered ancient versions of modern creatures, such as the prehistoric moose shown above. Similar to the Canadian and Alaskan moose, this prehistoric creature had slight variations. Understanding these variations will allow scientists to more firmly grasp how beings change over time.
Even the tiniest creatures can represent a huge boost of knowledge for modern science. While not as physically impressive as a moose or a mammoth, this frozen frog can reveal quite a bit about life at the time of its death. This frog likely died while trying to cross a small stream, thus leaving it frozen forever.
Perhaps more impressive than a frozen frog is that of a frozen human. This Incan Mummy was preserved in ice thanks to her convenient location. Found 20,000 feet above sea level, at the edge of a volcano, this frozen woman was found with her children. She was so well-preserved that she still had dead lice in her hair. Scientists don’t know why she was near the volcano, but the leading guess is that she was a sacrifice from her tribe.
Like the beginning of a viral horror movie, this Siberian discovery nearly caused a fatal outbreak. A body was found frozen in a Siberian river. What made the discovery worth mentioning was the fact that the body still carried smallpox disease. Fortunately, the people in charge of this discovery were careful and no new outbreaks were allowed to happen.
Now, we’re starting to think that digging through the ice is a bad idea. The Pathos Virus was discovered frozen in an icecap in the tundras of Siberia. Over 30,000 years old, this ancient virus does not have a modern cure. The Pathos Virus is also known to be one of the physically largest viral beings on the planet.
If you thought that finding a virus was cool, wait until you get a load of this. Lyuba is a baby woolly mammoth that was said to roam the planet almost 50,000 years ago. Found in 2007, by complete accident, this is one of the most incredible scientific discoveries in recent memory. Lyuba still had her skin, eyes, and trunk fully intact when she was found by a reindeer hunter.
Let’s end our discussion with something truly frightening, the discovery of frozen bone pits. Found in the Himalayas, piles of human bones were unearthed back in 1942. These bones were found in a thawed lake and there were allegedly thousands in total. Scientists managed to date the bones back to 850 A.D.
Here Are 5 Facts About The “Band Of Brothers” That You Did Not Know!
Since its initial airing back in 2001, the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers has only continued to gain in popularity. Now that later generations are accessing the miniseries on their favorite apps and devices, the men of E Company have become a regular topic of discussion.
They answered the nation’s call as members of the 101st Airborne Division (506th Parachute Infantry Regiment). They were one of the elite forces of World War II but there is still much to be learned about each of these brave men and the battles that they fought. Read on to learn some little known facts about each of these soldiers…..
1. Captain Ronald Speirs
The series and book spent some time focusing on the role that Speirs played in the Brecourt Manor attack. German cannons had been firing on the troops at Utah Beach prior to this counterattack. While the series hinted that he was responsible for the killing of a German POW platoon, this was not likely.
He was also one of the few men in the army to have made a combat jump in Korea and in World War II. Many do not know that Speirs served as a Red Army liaison as well. After this assignment was complete, he also served as a liaison to the Royal Lao Army before the Vietnam War broke out.
2. Albert Blithe
Those who have read the book remember the story about Blithe losing his eyesight. He was shot in the neck during a Normandy patrol but the series and book were both incorrect when it came to addressing his fate. The book and series implied that Blithe died as a result of this wound.
In fact, he lived on after World War II and even served in Korea as well. Blithe was also not a southerner, as the series portrayed. He was actually from Philadelphia and did not speak with a southern accent.
3. Edward “Babe” Heffron
“Wild Bill” Guarnere was a close friend of Babe’s, as the two men both hailed from the city of Philadelphia. After the series aired, Babe and Wild Bill began to give tours of the famous battle sites together. The actor who played Babe looks nothing like him, though.
Robin Laing is a Scotsman with a gentle appearance. Meanwhile, Babe looks like more of a tough guy. The real Babe even makes an appearance in the actual series. He had a cameo as a Dutchman who was seen drinking wine during the Eindhoven liberation.
4. Herbert Sobel
Brilliantly played by none other than David Schwimmer of Friends fame, Sobel was detested by the other men in the E company. They viewed him as a coward who was too interested in going by the book. The famous scene where Sobel sends the men up Mount Currahee after a massive pasta dinner is 100 percent true.
However, Sobel is also credited by many of the men in the company for his unorthodox training techniques. They did not like him but they certainly respected him. He survived a suicide attempt in 1970 that cost him his eyesight and died in a VA facility of malnutrition 17 years later.
5. “Why We Fight”
One of the most famous episodes of the series, “Why We Fight” focused on the E company’s liberation of an SS camp in Germany. The episode concludes with German citizens assisting the men in burying the dead, forcing them to confront the true horrors of the regime that had risen to power.
There was just one issue: the men had never liberated any such camp. The producers added the liberation as a means of conveying the horrors of this war. They did not wish to solely focus on the experiences of the E Company.
If these facts were as amazing to you as they were to us, be sure to pass them along to your friends and loved ones. Let’s all do our part to keep our nation’s war history alive and well in the years to come!
The MOH Marine Who Carried An Aircraft Machine Gun On Iwo Jima
There is no doubt the United States marines are all heroes that should be celebrated but some of them take their patriotism and heroic acts to a higher level. Unfortunately, not all these heroes are celebrated the way they should be celebrated and some of their achievements only get noticed or publicized after their demise.
One of such heroes is Corporal Tony Stein who can best be described as the hero of Iwo Jima. He virtually single handled took out a lot of Japanese soldiers who had laid siege for American troops in Iwo Jima in 1945 during the Second World War. Since this article is meant for casual readers, it has been written in a simplified form devoid of too many military terms. Corporal Tony Stein recently received the Medal of Honor posthumously. The medal was given to his widow. However, not many are aware of why he was nominated for the award.
This is why this article has been written to bridge the knowledge gap. Stein was born in Dayton, Ohio in 1921 to Jewish immigrants from Austria. He was enlisted in the US Marine Corps Reserve shortly before his 21st birthday. He initially served in the Marine Corps paratrooper unit. Thereafter, he fought in the Pacific Theater on several occasions. During this period, he had started exhibiting some extraordinary courage, intelligence, and patriotism that are worthy of emulation.
One of his impressive achievements was taking out five Japanese snipers in a single day. Tony Stein was definitely a handful for the Japanese troops. For his military prowess, he got promoted to corporal in 1944 shortly after the paramarines were disbanded and was assigned to the 5th Marine Division where he was the assistant squad leader.
One of the most effective weapons then was a variant of M1919 that was meant to be used on patrol aircraft and bombers. Although it is a lighter version of M1919, it is much more destructive than M1919. While M1919 could output 400 rounds per minute, this improved version could do up to 1350 rounds per minute and Corporal Tony Stein was astonishing with it.
Due to its level of destructiveness, the weapon was dubbed “The Stinger” and there were only six of them but Stein was in custody of one them. And you bet it was utilized to capacity by the young marine. In fact, it was his mastery of the use of this machine that won him the highly coveted Medal of Honor.
He made the best of the beast when his unit hit Iwo Jima on February 1945. He singlehandedly wiped out several Japanese troops with the weapon. When he ran out of ammunition, he would run back to the beach to resupply himself without his boots and helmet so that he could run faster. He made 8 of such trips and during some of them, he would help a wounded marine get back to safety. In some cases, when they had to lie low to avoid continuous enemy fire, he would courageously stand up and take some destructive shots at the enemies’ location to obliterate them and he often did it successfully with his stinger.
To underscore how close he was told death, in Iwo Jima, his stinger was shot out of his hands twice but he would pick it up and continue to do what he did best until the Japanese troops had to retreat in defeat.
Unfortunately, Corporal Tony Stein was taken out by a sniper not long after. He was being treated when he heard that his unit had been pinned down so he left the medical facility to join them. May be it was because he wasn’t fully fit or it wasn’t just his day. The great Corporal Tony Stein was taken down by a Japanese sniper.
It is quite heartwarming that his achievements, courage and patriotism didn’t go unnoticed and unrewarded. His Medal of Honor was presented to his widow about a year ago. The least you can do to celebrate this war veteran is to share the story of his sacrifice and contribution to America.
Our Real Life Hero Sergeant Snorkel
Beetle Bailey and Sergeant Snorkel were actually based on real-life people. The comic strip may have been embellished upon to add to the humor, but the real Sergeant Snorkel did possess many of the same characteristics. His daughter Griffen wished that her father Octavian N. Savu had known that the comic strip was based on him. He would have enjoyed knowing that.
Octavian Savu had been born to parents who had immigrated from Romania. Savu was born in Indiana and raised in St. Joseph MO. When he began school, his teacher had misunderstood his name when she was told it was Tavi, so he remained being called Tom or Tommy. He later attended Park College, Junior College and the University of MO.
When he turned 21 years old, in 1935, he joined the service. He was sent to the US Army at Fort Leavenworth Kansas. He was in the 17th infantry. This was the beginning of a decade long career for Savu.
In 1940, he married the love of his life, Margo. Around this time, he began to climb the ranks slowly in the military. He first became a Reserve Officer Trainer in Iowa, at the Abraham Lincoln High School. He taught the young recruits map reading skills, first aid, marksmanship and also combat tactics.
When he and the wife moved to St. Louis, he began a position at St. Louis’ Washington University. He was the overseer of soldiers in that school’s Army Specialized Training Program. These were twelve-week courses between 1943 and 1945. The courses later became known as “Engineering, Science and Management War Training Program”. This is where he met Mort Walker, an already known artist. Walker came from Kansas City and was a World War 2 draftee. In later years, Mort Walker would become the creator and artist of Beetle Bailey comic fame. The world would later learn that Sergeant Snorkel, the character in the comic strip, was actually based on Octavian Savu. Before leaving Missouri in 1944, Walker had given Savu a hand-drawn caricature of Savu.
Savu was then assigned overseas in France. He was a First Sergeant. Octavian Savu was there from April until August 1945. He served as an Administrative Sgt. with the 14th Reinforcement Depot. He was discharged early and sent home on a disability discharge on September 21, 1945. He was diagnosed with cardiovascular disease and later it was found that he was diabetic.
Octavian and Margo Savu adopted two daughters and moved to Colorado. He became an employee specialist at the Air Force Accounting and Finance Services. When the girls were still young, Savu had his first heart attack. He then began gardening and became known for his lawn and his roses. He was also a commander in his local VFW post.
In April of 1968, the family took a vacation and headed to where Mr. Savu had grown up. He showed the girls his family home where he had grown up. They also visited with family friends. As the vacation neared the end, they began to drive home. They stopped for the night in Omaha and obtained a hotel room. Savu had his third heart attack and passed away in the hotel room. The daughters were 14 and 11 years old.
Octavian N. Savu was given full military honors during his funeral. He was then buried at Fort Logan National Cemetery in Denver, Colorado.
His daughter, Griffin has stated that “He possessed many of the characteristics of Sergeant Snorkel. He was a compassionate man. He was tough but fair, and he was full of character. That is quite possibly why the troops loved him.” She also stated that to her and her sister, he was not just dad; he was their hero and their mentor.
Mort Walker spoke very highly of Savu also, before he himself passed away. He recalled when the Sergeant had written a poem and given each one of the men a copy by placing it on their pillows. The poem was called “My Boys”. Walker had stated that that was the point that they had realized he had a heart.
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